Within the European Union, the award of concessions by public bodies is subject to regulation. Construction concessions have been subject to procurement rules for some time, as Directive 2004/18/EC of the European Parliament and of the European Council on public procurement applies to construction concessions, and cross-border service concessions are governed by the principles of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. However, on 26 February 2014, the European Parliament and the European Council adopted a new Directive 2014/23/EU on the award of concession contracts[4], which obliged EU Member States to introduce national legislation for the award of concession contracts costing EUR 5 186 000, which were awarded on or after 18 April 2016. The contractual form of a concession contract may also be used to grant transport rights for a longer period. For example, the standard concession contract (MCA) for PPPs in container train operations, often the parties execute, either under the conditions of award or guarantee of promises of financing, various pre-competitive documents, either describing the basic conditions of the concession, or included in the concession itself. These documents include: a concession or concession contract is the granting of rights, land or property by a government, local authority, entity, natural person or other legal person. [1] The Authority should expect to receive all documents relating to facilities, electricity and water pipes, sewerage systems and all other underground systems installed on the site during the concession period. The operator should also remove all remains of piles, foundations and similar work before leaving the premises. When the land is restored to its original condition, all subsequent restoration costs are borne by the operator (see Box 51).

For most concessions, the main force majeure events are as follows: the parties under a full concession contract are usually composed of a port authority and a single promoter or consortium of sponsors (often referred to as specialised vehicle companies or special purpose vehicles [SPC]. The consortium does not necessarily have to be identical to the operator, but it may include the operator as a member of the consortium. Model Concession Agreements (MCAs) have played an important role in unbundling the complexity of these transactions. The use of a standardized form for concession contracts reduces unnecessary delays and higher transaction costs. It also simplifies the tendering procedure and creates the confidence of bidders and financiers who invest in infrastructure development. In addition, the application of standardized WABs reduces the costs and risks of small public authorities and private parties carrying out small projects at the local level, since in most cases they do not have the same expertise as the agencies and forums that develop CSAs. The right to use lines for a defined period of time may also be part of a concession (or franchise) agreement. These agreements typically combine the construction, maintenance and operation of a rail network and involve considerable investment. .

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